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Sleep Problems

Long-Term Effects of Sleep Deprivation on The Brain

Last Updated on August 30, 2023 by Louise Carter

Do you often find yourself sacrificing sleep to cope with the daily hustle and bustle? In a world where productivity is often equated with success, it’s unsurprising that sleep often takes a backseat.

What toll does chronic sleep deprivation have on the brain, and how does it affect our health?

We’ll explore the long-term effects of sleep deprivation on the brain, highlighting why good-quality sleep is paramount for our cognitive health and wellness.

Understanding Sleep Deprivation

Sleep deprivation is a widespread concern affecting individuals across all age groups.

It’s important to understand what sleep deprivation truly is and how it can manifest in different ways, ranging from a lack of sleep to chronic insomnia.

Sleep deprivation, in its simplest form, is a condition that arises when an individual doesn’t get the adequate amount of sleep required for optimal function and performance.

Accordingly, it’s suggested that adults aim for no less than 7 hours of sleep each night [1]. However, this can vary slightly from person to person, as everyone has different sleep needs.

In today’s fast-paced world, there are a plethora of factors leading to sleep deprivation.

Work or school stress, a noisy or bright sleeping environment, late-night social activities (like playing video games), or extensive screen time can disrupt sleep patterns.

Certain medical conditions, like sleep apnea or Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS), can also interfere with sleep quality, resulting in chronic sleep deprivation [2].

While occasional sleep disruptions may not cause significant harm, we must know the effects of chronic, long-term sleep deprivation.

Significant health issues can arise when those one-off, restless nights become a consistent pattern of insufficient sleep. This pattern is often referred to as chronic sleep deprivation or sleep deficiency.

Sleep deprivation, whether from insufficient or poor sleep, can pose health risks if left unchecked.

Understanding sleep deprivation is the first step towards rectifying our sleep patterns, promoting healthier lifestyle choices, and safeguarding our cognitive health.

What are the symptoms of severe sleep deprivation?

Cognitive Impairment

One of the most significant effects of long-term sleep deprivation is cognitive impairment.

Research has consistently shown that inadequate sleep can affect various aspects of brain function, including memory, attention, decision-making, and reaction time [3].


Chronic sleep deprivation can negatively impact short-term and long-term memory.

When we sleep, our brains process and consolidate the information gathered during the day, turning short-term into long-term memories.

A lack of sleep disrupts this process, leading to memory lapses and forgetfulness.

Attention And Focus

Sleep-deprived individuals often experience difficulty concentrating, which can affect productivity. Tasks that require sustained attention, like reading or driving a car, become more challenging.

Decision-making And Reaction Time

Sleep deprivation also impairs decision-making and slows reaction time. This combination can be dangerous, especially when quick, sound decisions are crucial.

Mood Disorders

Another worrying effect of chronic sleep deprivation is its link to mood disorders.

A lack of sleep has been associated with increased irritability, anxiety, and depression [4]. People who consistently sleep less than 7 hours are more likely to experience stress and anxiety.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Chronic sleep deprivation may increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s [5].

During sleep, the brain’s waste clearance system, the glymphatic system, removes harmful waste products that accumulate during the day, including beta-amyloid, a protein linked to Alzheimer’s disease.

A prolonged lack of sleep impairs this process, accumulating toxic proteins that damage brain cells.

Lack of sleep side effects brain

Tips for Better Sleep

Understanding the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation is only half the battle. It’s equally important to know how to promote healthier sleep patterns. Here are some useful suggestions:

  1. Maintain a consistent sleep schedule: Go to bed and get up at the same times, even at weekends, to maintain a regular sleep schedule. This consistency regulates the body’s internal clock.
  2. Create a sleep-friendly environment: Keep your space quiet, cool, and dark. Wear an eye mask or earplugs, or turn on a white noise generator.
  3. Limit daytime napping: Taking naps interferes with sleep. If you must nap, keep it brief (20–30 minutes) and schedule it for the mid-afternoon.
  4. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help you fall asleep faster and enjoy deeper sleep.
  5. Embrace a relaxing pre-sleep routine: Engage in a calming activity before bed, like reading a book or taking a warm bath, to signal that it’s time to wind down.
  6. Avoid using caffeine and alcohol right before bed: Drink and cigarettes affect how well you sleep.
  7. Manage stress levels: High stress or anxiety can interfere with sleep. Try relaxation techniques like yoga, meditation, or deep breathing exercises to manage stress.
  8. Eat for sleep: Avoid large meals, spicy foods, and excessive liquids in the hours leading up to bedtime because they can cause heartburn or frequent urination, disrupting your sleep.
  9. Exposure to natural light during the day: Daylight helps regulate the sleep-wake cycle. Go outside in the natural light for at least 30 minutes a day.
  10. Limit electronic use before bed: Your ability to sleep can be affected by the blue light from PCs, TVs, phones, and tablets. A technology ban might be implemented 1 hour before bedtime.


Chronic sleep deprivation is more than a mere inconvenience—it’s a health concern linked to cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and a heightened risk of neurodegenerative diseases.

To protect our overall health and well-being, we must prioritize sleep, making necessary adjustments to our lifestyle and sleep environment.

In a fast-paced world, it’s all too easy to overlook sleep. It’s not a luxury—it’s a necessity.

Our exploration of the long-term effects of sleep deprivation is just a starting point. The field of sleep science is vast and continuously evolving.

For an in-depth exploration of sleep and tips for improving sleep health, Sleep Bubble is here to help you.